Manual Correlatives Cross-Linguistically (Language Faculty and Beyond)

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We do being films of author from Healers, difficulties and e-books who would Get to make us. Anthony , Dellinger , is that many of the dozen or more commonly used forms can function in different surface positions with slightly different meanings and collocational dynamics; see critique of Warotamasikkhadit The epistemic position is more peripheral, preceding positions of irrealis marker [ca 11 ] and negative [may 52 ], with the deontic alternate closer to the verbal core and following positions of such formatives. The favored structuralist solution has been to expand the lexicon: Noss distinguishes two [a:t 11 ] homonyms in different form classes.

This form along with others has been investigated in detail by Kullavanijaya and Bisang in a selection-theory approach. Similar syntactic and semantic alternations apply to several other forms. Enfield this volume has given much attention to the counterpart of this form in Lao and much of what he describes in this volume for the Lao would apply to Thai as well. Other approaches involve linkage of semantics to various treatments of phrase structure, an especially well-designed analysis being that of Sookgasem in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar.

See also studies of Kanchanawan , with interest in machine translation; Ekniyom , using internal reconstruction; and theses of Kullavanijaya ; Scovel ; Boonyapatipark Howard and Koenig and Muansuwan inspect perfectivity in detail, e. Much of the above discussion relates in one way or another to grammaticalization paths, especially to situations where diachronically prior constructions and senses coexist in the current language along with their evolved alternates, with little or no phonological indication of difference.

Enfield presents a cogent discussion of grammaticalization issues relating to Lao, in most cases with direct application to Thai as well. Not only verbs and derived auxiliaries are at issue, but also other paths like [verb — coverb — preposition], cp. For more on what is essentially grammaticalization, if not explicitly so identified, see work of Clark from onwards , Jagacinski , Juntanamalaga and Diller , Bisang , Diller b.

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Iwasaki considers the grammaticalization of topic-marking form [nia 52 ]. See Part Four of this volume. Questions are taken up in work by Kullavanijaya and Santaputra A common yes-no question type is coded by a final particle written as though [may 24 ] but usually pronounced [may 45 ]; the ultimate diachronic source is undoubtedly the preverbal negator [may 42 ].


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This and other final particles with various speech-act, politeness and discourse functions are analyzed in a number of studies, Cooke providing a comprehensive orientation, with other studies by Bhamoraput , Peyasantiwong , Kendall, Yoon and Hye-Suk , Horie Ingkaphirom and Iwasaki Phonological reduction of these forms is studied by Peyasanitwong Bandhumedha presents a convenient grouping of families of particles and perceptive analyses of functions.

Diller and Juntanamalaga take up the [oe:y 24 ] set.

Strings of particles can occur together. Whether such forms are subject to ordering rules is considered by Warotamasikkhadit and Prasithrathsint Conjunctions are considered by Thomas and by Clark , who presents a comparative study and argument for a topicalizing function. Jagacinski takes up complementizer [wa: 52 ] and other complement types. For relative clauses and factitive noun clauses marked by formative [thi: 52 ], see Ekniyom ; Suktrakul ; Sornhiran ; Kuno and Wongkhomthong b ; Savetamalya and, for a convincing diachronic analysis, Kullavanijaya, this volume.

Comrie treats clauses of this type comparatively with particular attention to Japanese. Morev describes possessive constructions. For reciprocals, Bee comes to grips with the poly-functional [kan 33 ], variously a reciprocal, gathered-plural marker and male first-person pronominal form. As part of the wider picture, Warotamasikkhadit , a treats other idiosyncrasies of the verb [pen 33 ] along with verbless sentences.

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A postverbal nominal in a construction that might seem SVO superficially on inspection might not be a typical O-type patient semantically: it might turn out to have a locative, manner or instrumental function. Instrumental constructions are described by Warotamasikkhadit The postverbal position can also accommodate affected body-part terms, e. These introduce the issue of how pain is represented and how this affects construction choice, as discussed by Diller and by Iwasaki ; also in a more comparative anthropological mode by Fabrega and Tyma Quantification is taken up by Stine Whatever the theoretical approach, there can be little doubt that Thai quantificational phrases are prone to occur at the end of predicates, even if this means splitting an earlier noun phrase.

Wongbiasaj a considers this type under quantifier floating. In a related area, Haas and Kullavanijaya give examples of a range of intensifying techniques, several of which involve final position as well. Not a few of the studies cited above consider units greater than single sentences, among them Panupong , Grima and Hinds b. Iwasaki and Ingapirom , and in their other work, frequently rely on conversation-based examples and cogently take such wider contexts into account.

An early concern with discourse can be traced in the brief study of Hatton Vongvipanond Ekniyom , was among the first to consider topicalization in thesis-length detail, along with other discourse-pragmatic phenomena. Interest in topic and topic-marking devices continues in the work of Iwasaki, e.

Schmidt is a treatment of aspect in discourse. Burusphat presents a comprehensive discourse analysis based on narrative folklore, with texts presented in a convenient appendix, fully transcribed, glossed and translated. Chanawangsa studies cohesion from several perspectives, while Chodchoey uses transcribed materials to uncover strategies in oral discourse.

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Conversational Analysis CA refers to micro-analysis of discourse along sociological lines, including special attention to pauses, repetitions, self-corrections, kinesics, etc. Moerman presents stunning examples of the insights that this style of analysis can reveal.


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  4. An extra dimension of complexity in his study is the combination of Northern Thai, Lue and Central Thai in the text material, which is presented in meticulous oral transcriptions. Bilmes makes similar points. Turn-taking and speaker overlap is of interest in these studies, with Hinds providing a provocative parallel between Thai driving behavior and informal conversational interaction. Using natural conversation, Hartmann describes communication in market-places, with the more general thesis-length study of Baron Meepoe analyzing reference to persons in conversation.

    Patrakom deals with similar issues from a more philosophical perspective, developing a hermeneutic approach to the characterization of persons. Neill explicitly develops a synthetic view of discourse as an interaction of grammar, rhetoric and background socio-cultural knowledge. This genre is less tied to traditional constraints of immediate interpersonal communication, apt to use abstract nominalizations and to make nominal material explicit. In a similar vein, differences between spoken and written discourse are clarified by Chodchoey Person turns attention to specialized genre: oral sermons of a Buddhist monk.

    Several of the syntactic studies already cited show a strong semantic focus. The distinctive feature framework is used by Cooke in his comparative study of pronominal reference. Hiranburana develops a related hierarchical-taxonomy approach to classifying Thai classifiers, with several works of Placzek e. Gething discusses the extent to which distinctive features relate to cultural matters. Compounding has attracted semantic attention.

    Vongvipanond a presents a substantial semantic and syntactic analysis of compounds where component parts are synonyms. Additional studies link meaning with syntactic constructions in specific semantic fields. As mentioned, Thai pain terms are described in a comparative context by Fabrega and Tyma and by Diller , who points to interesting syntactic features of these constructions. Their syntactic analysis is substantially advanced by Iwasaki A similar topic, traditional Thai disease terminology, is developed in a more ethnographic study by Bamber Still relating to physiology but in a cheerier subfield, Reed produces a semantic analysis of Thai gastronomic terms.

    Representative thesis-length treatments of semantic topics include Gething and Terayanont Varied approaches are attested. Gething , develops a structural redundancy methodology which he applies to analysis of nominals. His later work , treats the semantics of locatives and other expressions with comparative reference to Lao.

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    Folk taxonomy is the focus of studies by Simmonds and by Stott , describing vernacular forest nomenclature. Another historical study of anthropological interest is that of Gething Toponyms as a reflection of culture, social organization and environment are treated in impressive studies of Hartmann and Prasitrathsint b. These link names of villages and other geographical units in Thailand to the wider Tai context, along with consideration of the Southeast Asian ecosystem and socio-political factors.

    Kinship: of anthropological merit and impact are studies of Thai kinship terms and their extended usages.

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    Gething a discusses distinctive features organizing Thai kinship and occupational terms. In a more extended study, Prasitrathsint presents a componential analysis of the complex system with useful comparative references.